Fast notes in no specific orderTHIS DOCUMENTATION IS INTENDED ONLY FOR THE USE OF THE PERSON TO WHOM IT IS ADDRESSED AND MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION THAT IS PRIVILEGED AND EXEMPT FROM DISCLOSURE. If the reader of this DOCUMENTATION is not the intended recipient or a person responsible for delivering the DOCUMENTATION to the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any use, dissemination, distribution or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited and may be deemed illegal under applicable laws. Thank you.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Each of these relationships involves a mutual response between the two components / that is, it compromises a dynamic two-way interaction rather than the complete control of an agent over a wholly passive receptor / The components affect one another / but an equilibrium may be reached with one or the other dominant, the relationship is still fluid
1 > Artificer ( Outliner / Producer ) and artifact ( Outline / Product )
Straightforward with the initial creative impulse / choose the object of imitation and the medium for the artifact / The question is about genre, about form, about style / decisions may be tentative and may be adjusted during the course of completing the artifact / as the artifact emerges it assumes an identity and becomes an object in its own right / and !!! inevitably begins to affect the creator and modifies his choices / at one extreme, the creator conceives the "outline/artifact" in its entirety at once and proceeds through a largely mechanical operation of setting it down - on paper, canvas, stone or in the landscape / or the other extreme / the "outliner" thinks of the process as a dynamic, even spontaneous event, and the outline is a record of a happening / I do not prefer this dynamic of the "artifact", the creator becomes docile and obedient as much as possible, a slave and the outline becomes the master, the outline cannot be independent of the creator / the outline has to develop under supervision of the creator, the degree of control may vary, and sometimes conscious control may come close to nil. Getting carried away, produce unconscious outlines ... but attempts like this have never been conspicuously successful ( " intentional fallacy " ) / An outline must be measured in terms of how much a percipient ( receiver ) can make of it
2 > Artificer and object of imitation
The relation between artificer and object of imitation / the equilibrium may be placed anywhere between the range of the two
extremes / The conceptual outline has attracted the notice of the outliner and has chosen to imitate it in the artifact / We don't create a replica, this would be one extreme, it would become a mere facsimile of the original / it will be a revision to some degree in the act of cognition, to act upon it as well as being acted upon by it, distortion occurs / here the concept of " style " acquires meaning, style is the technique by which the " outliner " adapts the object of imitation, makes it his own / the artificer domineers, the outline can be a gross revision of the imitated object, he exploits the object of imitation, altering as much as necessary to serve the end, the object might be barely identifiable / it is like the difference between the terms artisan and artist, the artist is he who assumes a license to disregard rules and snatches a grace beyond the reach of art , a reverence for the individual genius / The artisan imitates and manufactures a reproduction, the artist creates anew / Reduction to realizing the potential within the medium itself, removing the excess material that obscures / ... in no sense is this an art of imitation, the object of imitation is transformed into something more complex, the outline includes both a particular and a general reference
3 > Object of imitation and artifact
The outline of the imitation are related in the way that a derivative is related to its original ( Brot / Korn ) / the outline becomes a "symbol" of the object, ... a vehicle for the conception of objects / The " symbolization " of the imitated object gives a new identity / the outline acquires a measure of independence from both, the object of imitation and the outliner / the relationship depends on the degree of distortion introduced, either consciously or unconsciously / we don't do in the unconscious business, occurrence of technical limitations are enough / the medium imposes anyway limitations because of tradition and convention, the codes of cultural formation, the genre the applied label / The drawback, the dictates are restrictive as well as convenient, new outlines constitute a violation of
" decorum " , so the starter outline must be as perfect and clear-cut as possible, distortion is unavoidable / certain bounds have to be acknowledged by the creator of the outline and acceptable to the percipient ( receiver ) , warning ! The outliner might be tempted to be revolutionary, may flagrantly violate expected codes, produce an outline that recklessly subverts the object to imitation, this is stupid and futile, remember, good artist copy, great artists steal / Bottom line, every outline in history is a new version of something familiar, so that it may give the outliner and the percipient ( receiver ) a deeper understanding of the original ideas and a richer experience ( new revisions for new headroom's ), we may be more appreciative to an idea which presents itself for our consideration, ... by sharpening the sensibility of the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ), a well done outline endows the object of imitation with increases significance ... or thanks to the outline or by virtue of thoughts, old ideas relive its justified incarnation, of course adjusted and new additions to recently or in near future fully incorporated features like the internet ( sic ) / To be simplistic, every outline exhibits ideas that have been modified, brought up to date and are offered to the percipient ( receiver ) for comprehension
4 > Artifact and percipient ( receiver )
Using 20th century techniques of evaluation, such as symbolic logic, semiotics, stylistic etc., we are more able to suggest analytically how the " Work of an outline " expresses meaning, or how a percipient ( receiver ) knows what it is all about / here we see the interaction, the outline works upon the percipient ( receiver ), while of course the percipient ( receiver ) also works upon the artifact / at one extreme, the outline is complete and precise, the percipient ( receiver ) struggles to realize its potential, to know it in its nearly inviolable
selfhood / the other extreme, the outline is a largely undefined stimulus, a mere hint to which the percipient ( receiver ) is invited to respond in a personal freewheeling fashion / both extremes the percipient ( receiver ) will distort the outline to a lesser or greater degree in the perception of it / The presentation and the surrounding of the presentation is all important to distinguish the percipient
( receiver )'s comprehension of the outline from the outline itself. Once the percipient ( receiver ) is stimulated, his mind is the determining agent for meaning, these are approx x % of the percipient ( receiver )'s ( fill in % what you think that people think with the mind ), so to play it save, the rest only knows what it perceives with the senses / in fact there is no other reality but phenomena, ... so, for knowledge the mind of the percipient ( receiver ) depends on sense data / Freud ... there is nothing in the intellect which was not first in the senses ... the mind maintains a log of past experience ... conscious or unconscious conditions ... so, the audience accesses their "logs" and respond to the outline / debate about activity or the passivity of the human intellect during the act of perception still rage / but I suppose if the THE THE THE THE THE XYZ are the concern, the precious offspring, the perpetuation of the race, there might be more of the chance that the percipient ( receiver ) will use his/her intellectual luggage, and in regard to @@@@, the gender of the female will be the ultimate decision maker.
5 > Percipient ( receiver ) and artificer ( through the artifact )
The artificer [ @@@@ ] must approach the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) [ target audience ] through the artifact [ outline ], and conversely the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) must work in the opposite direction and use the outline as a means [ vehicle ] of approaching the artificer [ @@@@ ] / ... the percipient ( receiver ) engages in critical analysis of the outline and will look behind to its originators / but in most cases they do not concur in any theory of imitation >>> Only this level between creator [ @@@@ etc. ] and percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) involves an interaction between two human beings / communication occurs / critics displaying a wide variety of stripes deal with the "Outline" as though it were some sort of communication " because each work of " Outline " originates in the mind and feelings of a human being, it reaches its destination in the mind and feeling of another " / At this very important level may express himself so assertively and unmistakably that he kindles little initiative on the part of the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) / the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) is necessarily passive / or the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) may act so aggressively / responds that he takes over the conversation once begun and hardly listens further to the artificer [ @@@@ ] / the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) is very active / the relationship there is the tentativeness / even unresolvable ambiguity and chance for
error that always is present in social intercourse / as an extraordinary ploy, @@@@ may address the percipient ( receiver ) directly in a blatantly extracurricular gesture /
[ this is the point were you can loose all, so, don't "hang out" your superiority if there is any ] >>> Provide an opportunity for explanations or for announcing contexts, @@@@ may exploit it for their own purposes / approaching the percipient ( receiver ) outside the context of the outline / but take great care with this kind of behavior, don't get too far forward into the limelight, upstaging the outline or expressing or introducing dangerous opinions, or give the narrative an additional dimension from the perspective of a third person with a significantly different point of view / in many media, @@@@ cannot address the target audience personally, direct, but must instead remain a Grey eminence / getting around restrictions, cleverness in circumventing the objectivity of the outline / it is difficult to manipulate the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) in other forms than the literature attached to the way of thought in the outline [ of course it is mainly a question of big budget for PR ( propaganda ), especially when the "boot" is once stirred in the wrong direction, and it must be reversed, this is when the break occurs !!, if not big bucks are available, the question is how often are you capable to start anew ] / such research is scholarship, even if the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) is a legitimate component of the critical analysis / the danger lurks in the response to criticism, rather than in the perception of the target audience >>> Problems always attend upon the relationship between the artificer [ @@@@ ] and the target audience, usually they center upon the reliability,
" sincerity "of the artificer [ @@@@ ], ... is he sensitive to the surroundings, conscious of his own impressions, gifted in expressing them, rhetoric alone is not good enough / does @@@@ mean what he says, or does he, deliberately or inadvertently adopt poses which must be seen through ? / we do not talk here about the sincerity of the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ), even he is the responsible party for communication taking place / we assume that the percipient ( receiver ) ( receiver ) ( receiver ) is capable of comprehension and equally important that he is not perverse, an informed reader >>> So, the relationship between the two parties is "strained" at best, and depends upon the good will and honest effort of both parties.
6 > Percipient ( receiver ) and object of imitation ( through the artifact )
The relationship between the percipient [ target audience ] and the object of imitation [ the outline in regard to parts and ideas already thought or written by all kinds of people now or in history ] is the most tenuous and delicate of all, this is the interaction that gives purpose to everything else [ der Kreis beginnt sich zu schliessen ] >>> If the target audience fails to comprehend the outline, which is the all important touchstone for the entire process, the whole effort is flawed at best, and perhaps widely misdirected. In this case @@@@ could contribute little of his own if the conceptual idea is flawed or obscurely suggested, the percipient ( receiver ) would have to exercise considerable ingenuity in discerning it / the percipient ( receiver ) is called upon to fantasize in his attempt to reconstitute the " outline " / at the extreme his contribution to the outline may be so large that the reconstituted " outline " becomes little more than a projection of his own self-image / the subjective fallacy marks this extreme / when the subjective fallacy is operative, the "outline ( the concept ) " is reduced to a figment of the target audiences imagination, and critical anarchy ensues / but always the outline is distorted to some degree / [ the question is how does the reader discover the for him profitable aspect from the, for the "outliner" profitable invention ] >>> Since an outline rarely ever starts from scratch, every outline is a streamlined revision of thoughts already thought, and how this revisions are intended by the creator of the "outline" are of a significant consequence / the obvious procedure for the target audience is to investigate for themselves to what extent and what ways the creator of the outline revised the thoughts of previous, related concepts, thoughts and outlines, and for what purpose he made the modifications / the target audience wants, seeks to detect the " significant form " [ the differences that make the difference ], the audience is trying to make a " diagram " of the relationship between the parts / this part is the irreducible essence the quintessence of the structure in regard to the "outline" >>> Perception of the "creation / outline " varies from observer to observer, but since each interpretation incorporates the same network of relationships among all parts, all interpretations share a fundamental pattern, so we can talk about the same issue despite our private differences, feelings and purely personal associations / any outline that does not fully realize the " fundamental pattern " is inadequate or simply wrong / so the percipient ( receiver ) is satisfied by this " significant form ", the " pattern that follows through ", and in a Platonic way this " pattern " [ of revision ] is taken to be the essence of the up to date " concept / creation / outline / application into reality of @@@@ >>> If the percipient ( receiver ) is capable to identify the sources of thought in the concept of @@@@, he may do independent research and reconstruct it from resources outside from the outline presented and conduct of application exercised by @@@@ / it is like a photograph of a Cathedral, the percipient ( receiver ) may compare it with another photograph of the Cathedral, or he might even visit the Cathedral >>> Such an investigative project done by the audience, like indept research " into the deepest abyss " of @@@@, is scholarship / this is not likely to happen, once the " significant form " of @@@@ is established, but since it is all about THE THE THE THE THE XYZ in a very young age and the target age is the most susceptible crucial time for screwed up brain in the THE THE THE THE THE XYZs life [ Praegungsphase ], responsible parents most likely will engage in thorough investigation of @@@@, since @@@@ has no independent [ outside of the conventional school system ] history of high quality, reliable performance [ it is of utmost importance to acquire endorsements from public as well as endorsements from private, socially high ranking and reliable persons or industries interested in the education of future generations ] >>> It is of utmost importance to the target audience ( the parents ) to identify what @@@@ has added, deleted, emended, to give the THE THE THE THE THE XYZ [ the most precious possession of them ] freedom in their consciously perceived first conduct of their business in the world of reality, their protection from "overload", as well as to give them a future competitive advantage of their own perception of, and the conduct in the world / such things might last a lifetime >>>
The critic has the duty to ask, " how worthwhile is the whole idea ", and he will /... in the philosophical turn he will ask
" how true is it ", in the moral turn he will ask " how good is it " / the critic of course measures @@@@ [ the concept etc. ] against the standard outside @@@@ / history of civilizations shows that only rarely have we been satisfied by education for education's sake / there must be a purpose, an advantage >>> So, in articulating the theory of @@@@, we must realize and never lose the sight of, that a larger reality looms beyond @@@@, and ultimately conditions the significance of the undertaking, the enterprise, the monetary reimbursements of @@@@ >>> The universal norms are the basic terms of judgement, at once the Source, and End, and the Test in regard to all outlines and undertakings of @@@@ / during the act of criticism the percipient ( receiver ) ascertains if @@@@ is valid or fraudulent, valuable or worthless / the percipient ( receiver ) must determine whether he can fit @@@@ into his own scheme of things, whether there is sufficient common ground to allow even a frivolous response, or whether @@@@ must remain a distant anomaly of no significance to him / today we are not amused by for example "secret teachings" of different schools etc., last but not least there has to be a foundation laid for a child, which guarantees no disadvantages in his / her future life, and a larger reality, @@@@ must be always measured in sound terms to reality / @@@@ must become " play " in the most effete and least demanding sense, because even here @@@@ has to generate meaning in understanding the non demanding
approach / ... by and large, however @@@@ is a rational and earnest business, devoted in all it's effort to the advancement of
THE THE THE THE THE XYZ at an early age, and the target audience expects something positive from it, in theory and practice.
>>> In any case, my intention has been hypothetical rather than prescriptive, suggesting boundaries rather than plotting definite routes or proposals, outlines, because I don't wish to preempt the founders and creators of @@@@ in their perception of the state of things as they are, I am sure the founders of @@@@ are capable of a well-articulated outline, at the given time more familiar with all circumstances and necessities for a successful undertaking in regard to the future enterprise of @@@@.
In regard to future undertakings, detailed outlines of publications, research in due respect at the matter at hand, further distribution of all necessary materials, presentations etc., I am at your service if desired, looking forward to hear from you.
Sincerely yours, @@@@ 30 / 1st of May 1997, @@@@
replace @@@@ with a company name
replace THE THE THE THE THE XYZ with your product target
General Introduction of thoughts / related & unrelated / helping to formulate and create a Company Outline / by D.R.F. 97
The ignorant dwell in a world bound by Time and Spaces, ...escape,...
Philosophy gave you reasoning and rationality ... to escape
from the vainness of selfishness
from the sorrow of ignorance and the despair of worldliness
from the travesty of ambition and the cruel clutches of greed
from the red hell of hate and the cold tomb of dead idealism
The world is a spherical ant-hill in chaos / the "infinite" shall be fascinated by the monumental and by epochal events,
in regard to
be a diviner self and in accordance with the symphony of the whole ... the divine law is, that the sum of previous accomplishment shall be the foundation of each new order of things, ... that which is superficial may be allowed to perish, fundamental and essential things must remain, regardless of cost ...
Socrates declared >>> Knowledge, Virtue and Utility to be one with the innate nature of Good
Knowledge is a condition of knowing
Virtue a condition of being
Utility a condition of doing
Wisdom is synonymous with mental completeness, ... in time, the isolated "entities" and their consciousness are reunited, rejoicing to become the complete consciousness of the all knowing whole, become an absolute reality
Unknown philosophers and Dionysiac architects are standing by
EXTRA 1993 compilation
Phase I, Individual
The whole program of realization is to be considered in the following order, which breaks into two primary categories or phases:
( A ) the initial work to be undertaken by the individual prior to engagement of the aid of associates, and
( B ) original and initial work to be undertaken by the first group of associates.
These two phase may be organized as follows:
A > Research and development by initiating individual - prior to inauguration of design action and development action involving full-time employment of others. Inauguration of a general work pattern as a natural pattern coinciding with best scientific procedure, to wit:
Initiation of diary and notebook
Initiation of photographic documentation
Initiation of tactical conferences
1. Comprehensive library study of accrued arts
C. Theory of design - pertinent arts to be studied by the initiating individual include:
1> Anthropological data
2> Energetic - synergetic / geometry - the philosophy of mensuration and transformation, relative seize
3> Theory of structural exploration
4> Theory of mechanical exploration
5> Theory of chemical exploration
6> Energy as structure
7> Dwelling process as an "energy exchange"
8> Dwelling process as an "energy balance sheet"
9> Theory of structural complex
10> Theory of service complex
11> Theory of process complex
12> Theory of structural and mechanical logistics
13> Theory of complex resolution
14> Tension by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic means
15> Compressioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic means
2. Listing therefrom of authorities available for further Information
A. Local, personal contact
B. Remote correspondence
3. Pursuant to information thus gained, calling at suggested local laboratories
C. Setting up of informative tests for firsthand knowledge in own laboratory
4. First phase of design assumption
A. Consideration of novel, complex interaction unique to project
B. Preferred apparatus from competitive field
C. Design of appropriate flowsheets
5. Flowsheets submitted to:
A. Those competitive specialists who have proved helpful in steps 3b and 3c
B. Industrial producers of similar equipment and assemblies
C. Make informative tests for closure of gaps supporting assumed theory
6. Submit specifications and drawings of general assembly and unique component parts for informative bids by manufacturers
A. Second redesign of flowsheet based on available and suggested apparatus, price information, etc.
7. Prepare report consisting of diary of above, supported by photographic documentation and collected literature - with trial-balance conclusions in indicated economic advantage
( Which, if positive, will inaugurate Phase II )
Phase II, Collective
B. Design and development undertaking - involving plural - authorship phase and specialization of full-time associates. Consideration of relationship of prototype to industrial complex by constant review of principles of solution initially selected as appropriate to assumptions.
Adoption of assumptions for realization in design of pertinent principles and latest technology afforded.
1. Comprehensive survey of entire sequence of operations from original undertaking to clientele synchronization.
Realization strategy number 1 by individual ( Phase I )
Realization strategy number 2 by associates ( Phase II )
A. Physical tests in principle of the design assumptions' unique inclusions not evidenced in available data
B. General - assembly drawings ( schematic ) providing primary assembly drawing schedule reference
C. General-assembly assumption, small scale models, and mock-up full seize
D. Primary assembly, subassembly, and parts calculations ( stress )
E. Trial balance of probable parts weights, direct manufacturing costs ( approximately three times material costs; includes labor, supervision, and inspection ), forecast of total cost magnitudes, and curve plotting - at various rates of production, ratioed to direct costs per part and "all other costs" - i.e., "overhead", tool and plant "amortization", contingencies, "profit"
F. "freezing" of general assembly and its reference drawing
G. Drawing for the first full-seize production prototype commences in general assembly, primary assembly, subassembly, and parts
H. Budget of calculating and drawing time is set, with tactical deadline for each
I. Parts drawing and full seize lofting and offset patterns
J. Prototype parts production on "soft tools" commences
K. Subassembly and primary assemblies replace mockup parts
L. Physical tests of parts and subassemblies with obvious corrections and necessary replacements ( not improvements or desirables, which must be deferred until second prototype is undertaken, after all - comprehensive physical tests have been applied )
M. Photography of all parts and assemblies
N. Full assembly completed and inspected - cost
O. Static load tests
P. Operation tests
Q. Assembly and disassembly
R. Photography of all phases
S. Packaging and shipping tests
T. Estimates of savings to be effected by special powered field tools
U. Opinion testing
V. Final production "clean up " prototype placed in formal calculation and drawing with engineering budgeted deadlines
W. Parts costs scheduled by class A tools and time
X. Production tool layout fixed
Y. Production tools ordered
Z. Production dates set.
a-1 Lofting and offsets produced of full-size test "masters" and templates
b-1 Fabrication of special jigs and fixtures
c-1 Production materials ordered
d-1 Production tool-jig-fixture tune-up
e-1 Parts and assembly testing
f-1 Field operation scheduling
g-1 Field tools ordered
h-1 Distribution strategy in terms of initial logic limitation
i-1 Field tests with special tools
j-1 Field tools ordered or placed in special design an fabrication
k-1 Test target area selected for first production
l-1 Production commences
m-1 First field assemblies with power tools
n-1 Maintenance service instituted and complaints
( 1 ) Alleviated
( 2) Analyzed
( 3 ) Change orders of parts instituted
o-1 Plans for "new" yearly model improvement run through all or previous steps - for original production
p-1 Cycle repeated
2.Production and distribution velocity assumption
3. Plotting the assumed progressive mass-production curbs to decide basic velocities of new industry
4.Tensioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic means
5.Compressioning by crystalline, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetic means
6. Consideration of manufacturers basic production forms - relative to proposed design components for determination of minimum steps, minimum tools, and minimum waste in realization.
7.Establishment of priority hierarchies of effort
8.Time-and-energy cost budgeting
9.Assumption of industry responsibility for field practices, not only in mechanical and structural, but in economic design
10. Designing for specific longevity of design appropriate to anticipated cycles of progressive obsolescence and replacement ability as ascertained from comprehensive economic-trend curves
11.Designing with view to efficient screening of component chemicals for recirculated employment in later designs
12.Maxima and minima stated and realized performance requirements per unit of invested energy and experience, and capital advantage of tools and structures employed and devised
13.Logistics assumptions, compacted shipping considerations as original design requirement in
( a ) Nesting
( b ) Packaging
( c ) Compounded package weight
( d ) Relationship to carriers of all types
( e ) Field delivery
( f ) Field assembly
( g ) Field service and replacement
14.Consideration of tool techniques
15. Consideration of materials' availability
16.Consideration of materials' ratio per total design
17.Elimination of special operator technique forming
18.Elimination of novel soft-tool designing
( a ) Types
( b ) Repeat parts
( c ) Subassemblies
( d ) Primary assemblies
20. Number of forming operations
21. Number of manufacturing tools by types
22.Schedule of forming operations included on parts drawings
23. Decimal fraction man-hours per operation
24. Designed-in overall one-man-ability at every stage of operation
25.Schedule of design routines and disciplines
26.Establish a "parts" inventory of "active" and "obsolete" drawings - from beginning
27. Establish a "parts" budget of "required" designs of "parts" for assemblies and major assembly and general assembly and molds
28.Drawing dimension standards
29.Establish a numbering system of controlled parts
30. Establish purchasing techniques, jig-and-fixture, lofting techniques
C. Public relations - to run concurrently with all phases of IV ( B )
1. Education of Public
Rule 1: Never show half finished work
a. General magnitude of product, production, distribution.
But no particulars that will compromise latitude of scientific design and production philosophy of IV ( B )
b. Publicize the "facts" - i.e., the number steps before " consumer " realization
c. Understate all advantage
d. Never seek publicity
e. Have prepared releases for publisher requests when "facts" are ripe
above notes are a retrospect assembly 6/2003 by
Gleichheit von Männern und Frauen
Die Gleichheit von Männern und Frauen ist in allen Bereichen, auch auf dem Gebiet der Beschäftigung, der Arbeit und des Arbeitsentgelts, sicherzustellen.
Der Grundsatz der Gleichheit steht der Beibehaltung oder der Einführung spezifischer Vergünstigungen für das unterrepräsentierte Geschlecht nicht entgegen.
- Feminist Directories
- Feminist Theory - over 5000 bibliographical entries and 600 links
- Women Online Worldwide
- 'FeMiNa' with links to about 500 sites
- Feminist Activist Sources
- Feminism and the Net
- Marxism and Feminism
- Women of the World Report on Women's Legal status
- Anti-Feminism ( soso *g*) Discussion and Resources
extra > http://www.alicepaul.org/
Zukunftsvorsorge kein Wundermittel <- 7:03 AM 6/11/2003
Wer privat vorsorgt, sollte sein Geld international breit streuen, so der (indirekte) Ratschlag der Nationalbank.
Klar und unmissverständlich warnt die Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) vor den Risiken, die mit der neuen - staatlich geförderten - "Zukunftsvorsorge" als privater Pensionsvorsorge verbunden sind.
Keine Stärkung der Wiener Börse
Die OeNB erteilt dabei auch Hoffnungen, die "Zukunftsvorsorge" werde der Wiener Börse und damit dem heimischen Kapitalmarkt zum ersehnten Auftrieb verhelfen, eine klare Absage.
40 Prozent des Fondskapitals müssen laut Gesetz entweder an der Wiener Börse, in Athen oder Lissabon veranlagt werden - den schwächsten Börsenplätzen im EU-Raum.
Risiko für individuelle Altersvorsorge
Die OeNB stellt dazu in ihrem "5. Finanzmarktstabilitätsbericht" fest: "Der gezielte Home-Bias der Zukunftsvorsorge erscheint daher wenig geeignet, das bis dato geringe Engagement der inländischen institutionellen Investoren zu kompensieren; die Konzentration der steuerlichen Förderung auf die Zukunftsvorsorge ist freilich geeignet, zu einer nicht unbeträchtlichen Risikoexponierung der individuellen institutionalisierten
Altersvorsorge zu führen."
Privatvorsorge international streuen
Die OeNB verweist darauf, dass die erste Säule (also die staatliche Pension) bereits in besonderem Maße von der inländischen Konjunktur abhängig ist. Umso wichtiger sei es daher, so der OeNB-Bericht sinngemäß, bei der Betriebs- und der privaten Pensionsvorsorge auf internationale Risikostreuung zu setzen.
Doch genau das Gegenteil ist bei der "Zukunftsvorsorge" der Fall.
Warnung vor generellem Vertrauensverlust
Neben dem Risiko für den einzelnen Anleger sieht die OeNB auch makroökonomische Gefahren. Sollten Gewinneinbrüche passieren, könnte das zu einem "generellen Verlust des Vertrauens in Altersvorsorgeprodukte" führen. Dieser Vertrauensverlust wiederum könnte sich auf die darin enthaltenen inländischen Aktien auswirken, so das düstere Szenario.
Keine wirksame "Spritze" für Wiener Börse
Die Nationalbank zweifelt aber auch daran, dass das zweite Ziel der "Zukunftsvorsorge" - den heimischen Kapitalmarkt wesentlich zu beleben - erreicht wird.
Mittelfristig erwarte die Branche aus dem begünstigten Altersvorsorgeprodukt der Zukunftsvorsorge ein Aktienveranlagungsvolumen von jährlich rund 300 Mio. Euro.
Das entspreche rund einem Prozent der Marktkapitalisierung des Jahres 2002 und 1,65 Prozent des durchschnittlichen Börsenumsatzes der letzten zehn Jahre.
Höhere Kursschwankungen als Folge?
Resümee: "Angesichts der traditionell niedrigen Turn-over-Ratio der Wiener Börse ist daher von der Zukunftsvorsorge auch mittelfristig kein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Kapitalmarktentwicklung zu erwarten."
Umgekehrt sei auf Grund der niedrigen Liquidität allerdings "eine Erhöhung der Volatilität (Anm.: Kursschwankungen) nicht auszuschließen".
Wird Inlandsanteil weiter gesenkt?
Laut Nationalbank wurde vom Gesetzgeber nach der letzten "Reparatur" der inländischen Aktienquote von ursprünglich 60 auf 40 Prozent den Banken eine weitere Rücknahme auf 30 Prozent in Aussicht gestellt.
Auch ist die OeNB-Spitze auf Basis erster Erfahrungen mit dem Zukunftsvorsorgemodell für weitere "Evaluierungen", die freilich nicht den Vertrauensgrundsatz beschädigen dürften
"Selbstvorsorger" können unter zahlreichen Möglichkeiten der privaten Altersvorsorge wählen.
Um die "Pensionslücke" - also die Differenz zwischen dem zuletzt bezogenen Nettoeinkommen und dem zu erwartenden Auszahlungsbetrag - zu füllen, scheint eine zusätzliche Privatvorsorge heute unausweichlich.
Stopfen lässt sich diese Lücke nur durch private Vorsorge. Die Möglichkeiten dazu sind vielfältig und entsprechend verwirrend. Für die Ermittlung der Pensionslücke bieten die meisten Versicherungen und Banken inzwischen auf ihren Websites einen so genannten Pensionsrechner an.
Staat schießt zu
Grundsätzlich ist zwischen den klassischen Lebensversicherungen, risikoreicheren Fondsprodukten, reinen Ansparvarianten sowie der nun staatlich geförderten so genannten "Zukunftsvorsorge neu" zu unterscheiden. Auch diese wird mittlerweile von allen großen Banken und Versicherungen angeboten.
Bis zu einem Höchstbetrag von 1,53 Prozent der jährlichen Sozialversicherungs-Höchstbemessungsgrundlage (derzeit sind das 1.851 Euro) schießt der Staat noch einmal 9,5 Prozent zu.
Jährliche Neuberechnung der Prämie
Wer heuer 1.851 Euro im Jahr einzahlt, erhält also eine Prämie von rund 176 Euro. Diese Förderung wird jährlich neu berechnet und orientiert sich am jeweiligen Zinsniveau. Außerdem ist der Fonds von der Kapitalertragsteuer befreit.
40 Prozent in Aktien investiert
Mindestens 40 Prozent des Kapitals müssen in Aktien von EU-Ländern investiert werden, in denen die Börsenkapitalisierung weniger als 30 Prozent des Bruttosozialprodukts beträgt.
Im günstigen Fall können die Vorsorgesparer an den Gewinnen partizipieren. Verloren gehen kann das angesparte Kapital jedoch nicht. Der Staat garantiert zumindest für die eingezahlten Beträge inklusive Prämien.
Die attraktiven Förderungen beflügelten offenbar auch gleich die Fantasie der Versicherungen. Sie entwickelten neue Modelle, die auf einer Kombination aus Pensionsvorsorge neu und Versicherungsleistungen beruhen.
Bereits auf dem Markt sind Varianten mit Ablebensschutz und Prämienpause im Fall von Arbeitslosigkeit oder Krankheit.
Splitting als Lösung?
Neben der klassischen Lebensversicherung werden außerdem fondsgebundene Versicherungen angeboten. Experten raten aber davon ab, riskantere Sparformen als einzige zu verwenden.
Ohnehin lassen sich die verschiedenen Varianten kombinieren. Idealerweise verfügt man zunächst über eine sichere Basisvorsorge, also etwa eine Lebensversicherung, die am Ende der Laufzeit en gros oder als Rente ausgezahlt wird, betonen Fachleute unisono.
Eindringlich gewarnt wird auch vor voreiligen Abschlüssen. Übernimmt man sich, ist ein vorzeitiger Ausstieg immer mit Verlusten verbunden.
Bei der "Zukunftsvorsorge neu" ist ein Ausstieg frühestens nach zehn Jahren vorgesehen, eine Verlängerung bis zum 62. Lebensjahr ist individuell möglich, ebenso ein Aussetzen der Einzahlungen. Zumindest die Auszahlung des Kapitals ist garantiert.
Wird das Geld nicht widmungsgemäß verwendet (Auszahlungsplan, Einzahlung in eine Versicherung, die es mit dem Eintritt in den Ruhestand "verrentet"), muss nachversteuert werden, der Staat will außerdem die halbe Prämie zurück.